Gender equality in the realization of the human rights to water and sanitation 2016, para. 32
Levels of access to water and sanitation services affect men and women unequally. Because of their domestic roles and responsibilities, women are in greatest physical contact with contaminated water and human waste. Women and girls who hold their urine for long periods of time have a higher risk of bladder and kidney infections. In addition, they tend to avoid consuming liquids to prevent having to use the toilet, as a result of which many become dehydrated.
Non-negotiated soft law
Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation