A/RES/71/256 New Urban Agenda 2. By 2050, the world’s urban population is expected to nearly double, making urbanization one of the twenty-first century’s most transformative trends. Populations, economic activities, social and cultural interactions, as well as environmental and humanitarian impacts, are increasingly concentrated in cities, and this poses massive sustainability challenges in terms of housing, infrastructure, basic services, food security, health, education, decent jobs, safety and natural resources, among others. 3. Since the United Nations Conferences on Human Settlements in Vancouver, Canada, in 1976 and in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1996, and the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000, we have seen improvements in the quality of life of millions of urban inhabitants, including slum and informal -settlement dwellers. However, the persistence of multiple forms of poverty, growing inequalities and environmental degradation remain among the major obstacles to sustainable development worldwide, with social and economic exclusion and spatial segregation often an irrefutable reality in cities and human settlements. 4. We are still far from adequately addressing these and other existing and emerging challenges, and there is a need to take advantage of the opportunities presented by urbanization as an engine of sustained and inclusive economic growth, social and cultural development, and environmental protection, and of its potential contributions to the achievement of transformative and sustainable development. 5. By readdressing the way cities and human settlements are planned, designed, financed, developed, governed and managed, the New Urban Agenda will help to end poverty and hunger in all its forms and dimensions; reduce inequalities ; promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth; achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls in order to fully harness their vital contribution to sustainable development; improve human health and well being; foster resilience; and protect the environment. 6. We take full account of the milestone achievements of the year 2015, in particular the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 1 including the Sustainable Development Goals, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, 2 the Paris Agreement adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 3 the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, 4 the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014–2024, 5 the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway 6 and the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011 –2020. 7 We also take account of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 8 the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the World Summit for Social Development, the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and _______________ 1 Resolution 70/1. Resolution 69/313, annex. 3 See FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.1, decision 1/CP.21, annex. 4 Resolution 69/283, annex II. 5 Resolution 69/137, annex II. 6 Resolution 69/15, annex. 7 Report of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, Istanbul, Turkey, 9–13 May 2011 (A/CONF.219/7), chap. II. 8 Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigendum), resolution 1, annex I. 2 2/29

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